Rare earths in the glass industry have three applications: glass coloration, glass decoloration and polishing. Rare earth oxides used for glass coloration have neodymium(pink with purple sheen). The color of the glass that has praseodymium is green. In the process of polishing, cerium oxide is a delicate abrasive for manufacturing high-quality optical glass components.
Rare earths are used as catalysts in petrochemical industry. A serial catalyst is characterized by high activity, good selectivity and high productivity for gas. Rare earths in petrochemical industry are widely used.
Neodymium, samarium, praseodymium and dysprosium are the main raw materials used to manufacture modern permanent magnetic materials. Their magnetism is 4-10 times higher than ordinary permanent magnetic materials. Modern permanent magnetic materials are Widely used in television, acoustics, medical equipments, maglev trains, and also in military industry and other high-tech fields.
Rare earths in the metallurgical industry are widely used. Metallurgical industry accounts for about 1/3 of the total usage of rare earths. By adding rare earths to metallurgy, one can manipulate and improve the properties of the final material. Rare earths act as graphite spheroidizing agents and nucleating agents in cast iron to check harmful elements. In the application of non-ferrous alloy, rare earths improve the physical and mechanical properties of the alloy. Aluminum, magnesium and copper, these three series are most commonly applied.
Rare earths can be added to ceramic and porcelain glaze in order to reduce glaze. A risk of broken and make it burnished. Rare earths can be also used for pigments of porcelain glaze and ceramic.
Yttrium and Europium are the main raw material of red phosphor powder. Be widely used in color TVs, computers and all kinds of monitors. For phosphors, rare earth elements play a role as activators. Rare-earth containing phosphors are significant for modern products such as display screen, LED, sensors and fluorescent lamps.
rare earth ions are main activators of solid materials and inorganic liquid laser materials. The most researched laser materials are added Nd3+.